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Author: John M. Sharp; Category: Electronics; Length: Pages; Year: The Complete Guide to WIRING - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. The Complete Guide to WIRING. TLC recommends that you download and save this pdf document and . procedure or electrical safety textbook or a comprehensive source book on electrical .. a means of connecting apparatus that utilize electricity to the wiring system.

First edition published by Cowles Creative Publishing, Inc. The complete guide to wiring: Full-color photography and step-by-step information covers all of the most common do-it-yourself home wiring skills and projects, including installation and repair. Includes index. Electric wiring, Interior--Amateurs' manuals. Dwellings-Maintenance and repair--Amateurs' manuals.

Dwellings--Electric equipment--Amateurs' manuals. All rights reserved. With the exception of quoting brief passages for the purposes of review, no part of this publication may be reproduced without prior written permission from the Publisher. The information in this book is true and complete to the best of our knowledge.

All recommendations are made without any guarantee on the part of the author or Publisher, who also disclaims any liability incurred in connection with the use of this data or specific details. Cool Springs Press titles are also available at discounts in bulk quantity for industrial or sales-promotional use. To find out more about our books, visit us online at www. Acquisitions Editor: Mark Johanson Design Manager: Brad Springer Layout: Laurie Young Edition Editor: Bruce Barker Photography: Adam Esco Printed in China 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

The techniques shown in this book are general techniques for various applications. In some instances, additional techniques not shown in this book may be required. The projects in this book vary widely as to skill levels required: Consult your local building department for information on building permits, codes, and other laws as they apply to your project. Glossary of Electrical Terms. Types of Wall Switches. GFCI Receptacles. Preliminary Work. Highlights of the National Electrical Code.

Circuit Maps. Common Wiring Projects. Common Mistakes. A single pole switch at the end of the circuit a switch leg is one example. Adding an AFCI device may not be as easy as installing it. Some AFCI devices may not be compatible with dimmers. But according to top-notch home inspector Bruce Barker. AFCI protection for most circuits.

The available neutral at switch boxes. And local codes always supersede any national codes. Threeway and four-way switches are other examples. You may no longer tie into a receptacle in your garage to power anything outside of the garage.

To provide this neutral wire. Exceptions include the kitchen and bathroom receptacle circuits and the garage and exterior receptacle circuits.

When it goes into effect. When that old receptacle blows you may not replace it with a standard duplex receptacle. AFCI circuit breakers are required in most cases. Most local governing authorities use the NEC as the basis for their set of codes.

Our new wiring diagrams will show you how to do this. New computer-controlled and timer switches need power to operate. The new NEC expands this requirement to include most 15 and 20 amp. Garage receptacles may not feed other outlets. To allow easier installation of these new switches. Some AFCI devices may not be compatible with shared neutral multi-wire branch circuits. Here are the changes most likely to affect your wiring project. Some switch wiring methods require that the white wire be used and labeled as a hot wire.

In most cases. You may want to have an electrician help you when you install AFCI devices. You may need to substitute 3-wire cable where you formerly used 2-wire cable. Even if you have a good grasp of electrical principles. A refresher course is always useful. In addition. The most essential quality to appreciate about electricity is that the typical amounts that flow through the wires in your home can be fatal if you contact it directly.

This chapter explains the fundamental principles behind the electrical circuits that run through our homes.

Home wiring can be a very satisfying task for do-it-yourselfers. The beginner should consider it mandatory reading. Sources estimate that up to 1. In this chapter: It also includes some basic tips for working safely with wiring.

Water flows under pressure Water supply pipe Drain pipe Water returns under no pressure Water and electricity both flow. In electricity. The current in neutral wires is not pressurized and is at zero voltage. Water is made available for use through the faucets. Current flowing along hot wires also is pressurized. Water finally leaves the home through a drain system. Electrical pressure is called voltage.

Both electricity and water enter the home. In plumbing. Electricity is made available through receptacles. Electrical current flows in wires in much the same way that water flows inside pipes.

Like electricity. Large supply pipes can carry a greater volume of water than small pipes. This electrical current-carrying capacity of wires is called ampacity. Voltage ratings determined by power companies and manufacturers have changed over the years. Electricity then enters the service panel. Power plants are located in all parts of the country and generate electricity with generators that are turned by water.

Electricity from the two volt wires Power plants supply electricity to thousands of homes and businesses. The service panel also contains fuses or circuit breakers that shut off power to the individual circuits in the event of a short circuit or an overload.

These changes do not affect the performance of new devices connected to older wiring. On utility power poles.

Most homes built after have three wires running to the service head: A utility pole transformer—or ground transformer—reduces voltage from Electricity flows at these high voltages and travels through high-voltage transmission wires to communities that can be hundreds of miles from the power plants. Electrical transformers reduce the high-voltage electricity that flows through wires along neighborhood streets.

Certain high-wattage appliances. Wires carrying electricity to a house either run underground or are strung overhead and attached to a post called a service mast.

Incoming electricity passes through a meter that measures electricity consumption. Substations are located near the communities they serve. Step-up transformers increase the voltage produced at the plant. For making electrical calculations. A typical substation takes electricity from high-voltage transmission wires and reduces it for distribution along street wires.

In some areas electricity enters from below ground as a lateral. Current flows back to neutral at service mast Surges in current flow to grounding rod A grounding wire connects the electrical system to the earth through a metal grounding rod driven next to the house.

Light fixtures attach directly to a household electrical system. The meter measures the amount of electricity consumed. The two common types of light fixtures are incandescent and fluorescent. It is usually attached to the side of the house and connects to the service mast. The mast is supplied with three wires. The electric meter belongs to your local power utility company. They are usually controlled with wall switches. If you suspect the meter is not functioning properly.

A volt. Fuses and circuit breakers also are used to shut off power to individual circuits while repairs are made. Switches control electricity passing through hot circuit wires. Electrical boxes enclose wire connections. Most receptacles have two plug-in locations and are called duplex receptacles. Fuses or circuit breakers protect each circuit from short circuits and overloads.

According to the National Electrical Code. Switches can be wired to control light fixtures. Service panel: A metal box usually near the site where electricity enters the house.

In an electrical circuit. The flow of electricity along a conductor. The grounding wire often is a bare copper wire. An uninterrupted electrical pathway through a circuit or electrical fixture. The current term is armored cable. Wire connector: A device used to connect two or more wires together.

Usually covered with white or light gray insulation. Any material. A device that provides plug-in access to electricity. A continuous loop of electrical current flowing along wires.

Copper wire is an especially good conductor. Neutral wire: A wire that returns current at zero voltage to the source of electrical power. Circuit breaker: A safety device that interrupts an electrical circuit in the event of an overload or short circuit. This should cause a fuse to blow or a circuit breaker to trip.

A receptacle is a common type of outlet. Grounding wire: A wire used in an electrical circuit to conduct current to the service panel in the event of a ground fault. Insulating materials protect wires and cables. In residences. Any material that allows electrical current to flow through it. A brand name for an early type of armored cable that is no longer made. A short wire used to connect two or more wires to a single screw terminal. Junction box: See box. In the service panel.

A safety device. Grounded wire: See neutral wire. Hot wire: Any wire that carries voltage. Refers to the rate at which electrical current flows to a light. Polarized receptacle: A receptacle designed to keep hot current flowing along black or red wires and neutral current flowing along white or gray wires.

Two or more wires that are grouped together and protected by a covering or sheath. A device that controls electricity passing through hot circuit wires. Non-metallic sheathed cable: NM cable consists of two or more insulated conductors and. A brand name for an early type of flexible metal conduit. Used to turn lights and appliances on and off. The work performed by electricity for a period of time. A box for a ceiling fan is another type of outlet.

Armored cable: An assembly of insulated wires enclosed in a flexible. Wattage or watt: A measurement of electrical power in terms of total work performed. A demand for more current than the circuit wires or electrical device was designed to carry.

A brand name of plastic-sheathed electrical cable that is commonly used for indoor wiring. An abbreviation for Underwriters Laboratories.

Short circuit: An accidental and improper contact between two current-carrying wires or between a current-carrying wire and a grounding conductor. Flexible metal conduit FMC: A place where electricity is taken for use. Voltage or volts: A measurement of electricity in terms of pressure. Use of power makes heat. Duplex receptacle: A receptacle that provides connections for two plugs. Commonly known as NM cable. A device used to measure the amount of electrical power being used.

The current term is flexible metal conduit. Screw terminal: A place where a wire connects to a receptacle. A device used to contain wiring connections. Watts can be calculated by multiplying the voltage times the amps. Also called a wire nut. A metal or plastic pipe used to protect wires.

GFCI receptacles Separate volt circuit for water heater heater. Electric meter measures the amount the amount of electrical of electricity power consumed and displays the measurement inside a glass dome dome. Bonding wire to metal water pipe pipe. Bonding wire to metal grounding rod rod. Wall switch Chandelier Receptacles Switch loop Separate volt circuit for microwave oven oven. Service panel distributes electrical power into circuits circuits. Jumper wire is used to bypass the water meter and ensures an uninterrupted grounding bonding pathway pathway.

Grounding rod must be at least 8 feet long and is driven into the ground outside the house house. The grounding wire conducts current in the event of a ground fault see page and helps reduce the chance of severe electrical shock.

Several switches. For safety. Current returns to the service panel along a neutral circuit wire. If a circuit carries too much current. Understanding Electrical Circuits Anatomy of a circuit A n electrical circuit is a continuous loop. A fuse or a circuit breaker protects each circuit in case of overloads.

Hot wires are black or red. Current then leaves the house on a large neutral service wire that returns it to the utility transformer. Household circuits carry electricity from the main service panel. These wires are color coded for easy identification.

Current enters a circuit loop on hot wires and returns along neutral wires. The service panel also has a bonding wire connected to a metal water pipe and a grounding wire connected to a metal grounding rod. A person could receive a fatal shock if he or she touches energized metal that is improperly bonded.

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Ground Fault: Current is detoured by a loose wire in contact with the metal box. Most current in the bonding and ground system flows back to the transformer. Other grounding electrodes include reinforcing steel in the footing.

These terms are often misunderstood. Bonding connects the non-current-carrying metal parts of the electrical system. The most common grounding electrode is a buried copper rod. The dead circuit alerts people to a problem. Bonding is also a fire safety system that reduces the chance of electrical fires. Contrary to popular belief.

Black hot wire Grounding wire Current returns to transformer White neutral wire Grounding screw Grounding wire Loose hot wire Grounding wire to grounding rods Grounding wire to grounding rods 8 ft. Metal Service panel water and gas pipes are the most common examples. Grounding is accomplished by connecting a wire between the main service panel and a grounding electrode. Metal gas pipe could become energized by a ground fault in a gas appliance such as a furnace.

In a household wiring system. Grounding also provides a secondary return path for electricity in case there is a problem in the normal return path. You will see the terms grounding and bonding used in this and other books about electricity. Bonding is a very important safety system. The grounding wire and bonded metal conduit pick it up and channel it back to the main service panel. If this metal becomes energized a ground fault. Current enters the electrical box along a black hot wire and then returns to the service panel along a white neutral wire.

From the service panel. A metal water and gas pipe could become energized by coming in contact with a damaged electrical wire.

You should understand the difference to safely work on electrical circuits. When connected to metal junction boxes. Flexible metal conduit not shown is sold empty. A receptacle adapter allows three-prong plugs to be inserted into two-slot receptacles. Double-insulated tools have non-conductive plastic bodies to prevent shocks caused by ground faults.

Use a receptacle adapter to plug three-prong plugs into two-slot receptacles. Tamper resistent three-slot receptacles are required by code for new homes. Used with a polarized plug. Modern NM nonmetallic cable. The adapter should only be used with receptacles mounted in a bonded metal box. By plugging a three-prong plug into a grounded three-slot receptacle.

The mounting screw connects the adapter to the grounded metal electrical box. Modern cable includes a green insulated or bare copper wire that serves as the bonding path. After The metal jacket around armored cable and flexible metal conduit. The two-slot polarized plug and receptacle was designed to keep hot current flowing along black or red wires and neutral current flowing along white or gray wires.

Polarized receptacles have a long slot and a short slot. Armored cable is sold pre-installed in a flexible metal housing. Because of these features. This grounding wire is connected to all three-slot receptacles and metal boxes to provide a continuous pathway for any ground-faulted current. They are usually connected to a standard two-wire cable with ground. The materials used for electrical wiring have changed dramatically in the last 20 years. Home Wiring Tools T o complete the wiring projects shown in this book.

The following pages show how to work with the following components for your projects. As with any tool download.

Keep your tools clean. Electrical tapes in a variety of colors are used for marking wires and for attaching cables to a fish tape. C A B Diagnostic tools for home wiring use include: A touchless circuit tester A to safely check wires for current and confirm that circuits are dead.

A fish tape is useful for installing cables in finished wall cavities and for pulling wires through conduit. Products designed for lubrication reduce friction and make it easier to pull cables and wires. Create a circuit index and affix it to the inside of the door to your main service panel.

Follow the safety tips shown on these pages. Although most household electrical repairs are simple and straightforward. Common sense can prevent accidents. Update it as needed. These devices have been tested for safety by Underwriters Laboratories. The basic rule of electrical safety is: Always turn off power to the area or device you are working on. Use only UL-approved electrical parts or devices.

Shut power OFF at the main service panel or the main fuse box before beginning any work. Confirm power is OFF by testing at the outlet. Test a live circuit with the voltage tester to verify that it is working before you rely on it.

Then check to make sure the power is off by testing for power with a voltage tester. Restore power only when the repair or replacement project is complete. Wiring Safety afety should be the primary concern of anyone working with electricity. Never attempt an electrical project beyond your skill or confidence level. At the main service panel. Use fiberglass or wood ladders when making routine household repairs near the service mast. If possible. Breakers and fuses must be compatible with the panel manufacturer and match the circuit capacity.

Cords must be rated for the intended usage. Do not penetrate walls or ceilings without first shutting off electrical power to the circuits that may be hidden. On damp floors. Extension cords are for temporary use only. Never alter the prongs of a plug to fit a receptacle.

This chapter introduces some of the many varieties of wire. Selecting the appropriate size and type and handling it correctly is absolutely necessary to a successful wiring project that will pass inspection. Copper wire is the primary conductor of electricity in any home. In some cases. Conduit also known as raceway is used primarily in situations where the cables or wires are exposed. It also will demonstrate the essential skills used to run new cable.

The insulated wires are frequently grouped together and bound up in rugged plastic sheathing according to gauge and function. Multiple wires housed in shared sheathing form a cable. The electricity itself travels on the outer surfaces of the wire. Aluminum and copper-covered aluminum wires require special installation techniques. The ampacity for aluminum wire is less. A group of two or more wires enclosed in a metal. Solid copper wires are the best conductors of electricity and are the most widely used.

Old insulation that is cracked or damaged can be reinforced temporarily by wrapping the wire with plastic electrical tape. Wire sizes shown actual size are categorized by the American Wire Gauge system. The ampacities in this table are for copper wires in NM cable.

This type of insulation is very durable and can last as long as the house itself. Conduit also protects wires. White means 14 wire. If so. The ampacity for the same wire in conduit is usually more. In some circuit installations. The insulation is color coded see chart. To check the size of a wire.

The sheath protects the wires from damage. Individual wires are covered with rubber or plastic vinyl insulation. Wires must be large enough for the amperage rating of the circuit see chart. The larger the wire size. Before New cable sheathing is also color coded to indicate the size of the wires inside.

A wire that is too small can become dangerously hot. Rubber insulation has a life expectancy of about 25 years. In most wiring systems installed after An exception is a bare copper grounding wire. It is designed for installations in damp conditions. Metal conduit was installed during the middle of the 20th century as a way to protect hot and neutral conductors. UF underground feeder cable has wires embedded in a solid-core plastic vinyl sheathing and includes a bare copper grounding wire.

Wires are covered with a layer of rubberized cloth. Early NM nonmetallic cable was used from until The Modern MC contains an insulated ground wire along with the conductors.

NM cable nonmetallic was developed cable was around developed around Early versions had no grounding function. Later armored cable products either had ground wire twisted in with the flexible metal cover or relied on the metal cover itself for connecting to ground.

NM cable greatly simplified installations because separate wires no longer had to be pulled by hand through a conduit or armored cable. It features a rubberized fabric sheathing that protects individual wires.

The conduit itself often was employed for connecting to ground. Metal clad cable MC and armored cable AC have been around since the s. Early NM cable had no grounding wire. Eight-wire cable has extra wires that are left unattached.

NM nonmetallic sheathed cable should be used for most indoor wiring projects in dry locations.

Telephone cable is used to connect telephone outlets. Your phone company may recommend four-wire cable shown below or eight-wire cable. UF cable underground is used for feeder wiring cable in damp is used locations. Cat 5 Category 5 cable is used mostly for information and data networks.

It is similar to NM cable. Service entrance cable SE is used between Large-appliance cable. NM cable is allowed. Each wire. It is available in lengths up to 25 ft. SE cable is available in both 3-wire types. Large-appliance conducting wire is made from fine-stranded cable is available in both 2-wire and copper wires.

The cable contains four pairs of twisted copper wire with color-coded insulation. NM cable is available in a wide range of wire sizes. NM cable is sold in boxed rolls that contain from 25 to ft.

Coaxial cable is used to connect cable television jacks. These extra wires allow for future expansion of the system. Or you can download bulk cable B in any length. It can also be used or amp appliances that require 8-gauge for kitchen ranges and other amp or amp or larger wire.

Wire connectors are color-coded by size. Green wire connectors are used only for grounding wires. Wire coded with an N is impervious to damage from oil or gas. The wire connectors shown above come from one major manufacturer. W denotes wire suitable for wet locations. To ensure safe connections. Ampacity varies by the size of the wires. The bare grounding wire is not counted.

For dedicated appliance circuits.

H stands for heat resistance. Wire insulation is coded with letters to indicate resistance to moisture. NM cable also is stamped with a maximum voltage rating.

T indicates thermoplastic insulation. When installing a new circuit. For example. Code requires certain letter combinations for certain applications.

These connectors can be used to connect both conducting wires and grounding wires. Cut individual wires as needed using the cutting jaws of the combination tool. Choose the opening that matches the gauge of the wire. Slide the cable ripper onto the cable. Strip insulation for each wire using the stripper openings. Instead of twisting the bare wire ends together. Hook each wire around the screw terminal so it forms a clockwise loop. Tighten the screw firmly. Never place the ends of two wires under a single screw terminal.

Choose the stripper opening that matches the gauge of the wire. These connectors are perfect for inexperienced DIYers. Insulation should just touch head of screw. The wire should have no scratches or nicks. Choose staples sized to match the cables. Pull the wire firmly to remove plastic insulation.

The connectors come with two to four holes sized for various gauge wires. Push-in connectors are a relatively new product for joining wires. There should be no bare wire exposed beneath the collar of the connector. Few professional electricians use tape for purposes other than tagging wires for identification. Twist a wire connector over the ends of the wires. Rotate the pliers clockwise two or three turns to twist the wire ends together. Gently tug on each wire to make sure it is secure.

Hand-twist the connector as far onto the wires as you can. Make sure the connector is the right size see page By code. The ends of the wires should be flush and they should be parallel and touching. Pigtailing is done mainly to avoid connecting multiple wires to one terminal. Fold the wires neatly and press the fitting into the box.

Join one end of the pigtail to the wires that will share the connection using a wire nut. Connect the pigtail to the appropriate terminal on the receptacle or switch. If you are pigtailing to a grounding screw or grounding clip in a metal box. Use plastic grommets to protect cables on steel studs inset.

Prevent kinks by straightening the cable before pulling it through the studs. NM Cable N on-metallic NM cable is used for most indoor wiring projects except those requiring conduit and those in damp areas such as against concrete or masonry walls with dirt on the other side.

electrical wiring et 146 book pdf

When boring holes. In general. Manufacturers of I-joists and engineered beams have limits about the size and location of holes. Joists can be notched only in the end third of the overall span. Do not install wallboard or attach light fixtures and other devices until this inspection is done.

Cut and install the cable after all electrical boxes have been mounted. When inserting cables into a circuit breaker panel. Different rules apply to wood I-joists. Check with your building inspector before using NM cable. Cable runs are difficult to measure exactly. Cable splices inside walls are not allowed by code. Some areas.

Refer to your wiring plan to make sure each length of cable is correct for the circuit size and configuration. After all cables are installed and all the ground wires spliced. This is done easily with a right-angle drill. Insert a cable clamp into the knockout. Use a cable ripper to strip the cable. Measure and cut all cables. Open a knockout in the circuit breaker panel using a hammer and screwdriver. Tighten the mounting screws on the clamp so the cable is gripped securely but not so tightly that the sheathing is crushed.

Clip away the excess sheathing. At corners. Run the cable to the first electrical box. Remove sheathing from the marked line to the end using a cable ripper. Different types of boxes have different clamping devices. Insert the cable through the knockout in the box. Hold the cable taut against the front of the box. Retrieve the cable through the other hole using needlenose pliers inset. Where the cable runs along the sides of framing members. Take care not to nick the copper.

Clip back wires so there is 8" of workable length. From inside the fixture. At metal boxes and recessed fixtures. Label the cables entering each box to indicate their destinations. After all cables are installed.

Mark the floor so the cable will be easy to find after the walls are finished. If the box has internal clamps. In boxes with complex wiring configurations. At each recessed fixture and metal electrical box. From the unfinished space below the wall. From above the finished wall. Drill a 1" hole up into the stud cavity. Choose a location for the new cable that does not interfere with existing utilities.

Apply cable-pulling lubricant to the taped end of the fish tape. This job will be easier if you have a helper feed the cable from below as you pull.

Drill a 1" hole down through the top plate and into the stud cavity using a drill bit extender. Bend the wires against the cable. If walls do not line up right. After running the cable. Extend a fish tape into the joist cavity between the walls and use it to pull the cable from one wall to the next. If the walls line up one over the other left. Use a flexible drill bit. Drop the line into the stud cavity from above. Cut small openings in the wall near the top and bottom plates.

This often occurs in two-story homes when a cable is extended from an upstairs wall to a downstairs wall. Be sure not to tap into a restricted circuit such as the kitchen counter top and bathroom receptacles. When you are finished pulling the cable. New fixture location Nail guard New switch location Existing receptacle Access holes shown larger than necessary for clarity 2 Fish a cable from the existing receptacle location up to the notch at the top of the wall.

After having your work inspected. Remove drywall on the wall and ceiling surface. To begin. Use a fish tape to pull the new cable up through the wall cavity and the notch in top plates.

Make a notch in the center of the top. Be sure to plan a location for the new switch. Remove short strips of drywall from the wall and ceiling. Where cable must cross framing members. Next use the fish tape to pull the cable through the ceiling to the fixture hole.

Protect the notch with a metal nail stop. Elbow fitting is used in tight corners or for long conduit runs. Conduit should be supported within 3 ft. Cables that are exposed and are within the reach of an adult and most cables installed outside are often considered subject to physical damage. Compression fittings are used in outdoor IMC installations. Use UF cable instead or pull individual wires rated for wet area use.

Conduit and tubing installed outdoors must be rated for exterior use. Pigtail Pigtail Install a green insulated grounding wire for any circuit that runs through metal conduit. The interior of conduit and tubing installed outside is considered a wet area. It often is used to connect permanently wired appliances. Although code allows the metal conduit to serve as the grounding conductor. The grounding wires must be connected to metal boxes with a pigtail and grounding screw left or grounding clip right.

The cover can be removed to pull long lengths of wire. Whether a location is subject to physical damage depends on the judgment of the electrical inspector.

Other exposed locations may also qualify. Screw-in connectors or setscrew connectors are used to connect flexible metal conduit. Nail straps are driven into wooden framing members to anchor conduit. Cables and wires that are subject to physical damage must be installed in conduit or some types of tubing to protect them.

Plastic PVC conduit and tubing are allowed by many local codes. Do not use PVC plumbing pipes. Use material approved for use in electrical applications. Rigid metal conduit provides the greatest protection for wires. IMC is rated for outdoor use but can also be used indoors.

IMC has thicker galvanized walls and is a good choice for exposed outdoor use. It is assembled with solvent glue and PVC fittings that resemble those for metal conduit. Box: A device used to contain wiring connections. BX: A brand name for an early type of armored cable that is no longer made. The current term is armored cable. Cable: Two or more wires that are grouped together and protected by a covering or sheath.

Neutral wire: A wire that returns current at zero voltage to the source of electrical power. Usually covered with white or light gray insulation. Also called the groundedwire. Non-metallic sheathed cable: NM cable consists of two or more insulated conductors and, in most cases, a bare ground wire housed in a durable PVC casing. Outlet: A place where electricity is taken for use. A receptacle is a common type of outlet.

A box for a ceiling fan is another type of outlet. Circuit: A continuous loop of electrical current flowing along wires. Overload: A demand for more current than the circuit wires or electrical device was designed to carry. This should cause a fuse to blow or a circuit breaker to trip. Circuit breaker: A safety device that interrupts an electrical circuit in the event of an overload or short circuit.

Pigtail: A short wire used to connect two or more wires to a single screw terminal. Conductor: Any material that allows electrical current to flow through it. Copper wire is an especially good conductor. Polarized receptacle: A receptacle designed to keep hot current flowing along black or red wires and neutral current flowing along white or gray wires.

Conduit: A metal or plastic pipe used to protect wires. Power: The work performed by electricity for a period of time.

Handbook of Electrical Design Details, Second Edition

Use of power makes heat, motion, or light. Continuity: An uninterrupted electrical pathway through a circuit or electrical fixture. Current: The flow of electricity along a conductor. Receptacle: A device that provides plug-in access to electricity. Duplex receptacle: A receptacle that provides connections for two plugs. Romex: A brand name of plastic-sheathed electrical cable that is commonly used for indoor wiring.A receptacle is a common type of outlet.

Batten Holder A six-sided polygon is a hexagon, one of the three regular polygons capable of tiling the plane. H stands for heat resistance. Pure poly vinyl chloride is a white, brittle solid.